AMARS in the EU

About this report

Twitter Average Monthly Active Recipients of Service (AMARS) in the EU

Twitter is committed to transparency with its users and appreciates the importance of consistent reporting regarding the number of service recipients active in the EU online ecosystem in accordance with the requirement to art. 24(2) DSA. Our understanding of the requirement and compliance approach is outlined below.

EU Active Recipients of the Service - Average last 45 days estimation1

Logged In Twitter Users


Logged Out Guests




Twitter Average Monthly Active Recipients of Service (AMARS) in the EU



The AMARS requirement

Twitter has analyzed the DSA’s guidance on AMARS, including the definitions for “recipient of the service” and “active recipient of an online platform”, and recital 77. As a result, it has developed the following methodology for counting AMARS: 

  • all natural and legal persons in the EU who upload content to Twitter or are exposed to Twitter content through  Twitter's application interface
  • inclusive non-authenticated users (i.e. users without an account or logged-out users, assuming they are able to engage with the service e.g. by reading or listening to or clicking on content)
  • a single user accessing through multiple interfaces should be counted only once
  • a single user accessing with multiple accounts should be counted only once
  • bots or scrapers are excluded.


Monetizable Daily Active Users (mDAU) and AMARS

Twitter's mDAU methodology considers only monetizable users on Twitter. However, our AMARS count includes all (non-)authenticated recipients who can access any type of content on Twitter through Twitter interfaces.

Twitter utilized several elements of its mDAU transparency practices to calculate Twitter's AMARS. In fact, there is significant overlap between the mDAU methodology and the AMARS methodology as outlined above. For instance:

  • mDAU also includes both natural and legal persons
  • mDAU also excludes use of Twitter through third-party applications (i.e. they only included the Twitter website and the Twitter app)

  • the mDAU methodology excludes bots and scrapers to the extent identified by Twitter in our internal random sampling review.
Including non-authenticated users

Twitter makes most of its content accessible to non-authenticated users. Persons without a Twitter account, or logged-out Twitter users, are able to access most content on without being required to log in. This accessibility is fundamental to Twitter’s mission to serve the public conversation and help ensure the freedom of expression and access to information of its users. Twitter is presenting the specific average active recipients of the service represented by logged out guest users.

Geographic location

For purposes of consistency with our practices under the GDPR, we will be basing the geographic location of our AMARS on the IP address associated with the recipient at the moment the recipient accesses Twitter.